Fauna, Flora and Climate
Vegetation and climate
Like its relief, Chad’s vegetation is not homogeneous. It holds a surprising diversity, which asserts the territory that spreads from the forest zone in the south to the desert in the north. Just like the relief, the territory’s immensity exposes according to the climate a large natural diversity that quite marvelously expresses the variety of landscapes, cultures and resources that make up the country.
From north to south we see following vegetation unfold:
The Sahara zone: This vast desert territory of about 600,000 square km makes up almost half of the surface of the whole country. The climate is of Saharan type, where it rains 50 to 200 mm during the months of July and August. We ensue a highly contrasted landscape: the powerful almost inhabited volcanic massive in the north of the Tibesti, succeeded by a sand ocean, movable like a mineral wave, on which the wind leaves at times surprising motives. East in the Ennedi, a vast sandstone plain unfurls.
The Sahel zone: strongly marked by a longer dry season than a rainy season, it presents from north to south important variations. In its more northern parts, where the environment is composed of sand dunes, palm trees and oasis, it rains only 400 mm a year; in its acacia forest covered parts, situated more to the south, it rains up to 600-800 mm a year.
The Sudan zone: it represents 1/9 of the national territory; it is the most irrigated and the most inhabited part of the country, with a maximal annual precipitation average of 70 mm within 24 hours. This zone receives between 800 and 1200 mm rain per year. Due to its vegetation that spans from the bushy savanna to the forest, it disposes indispensable resources in the wintertime when herds are coming from the Sahel and Saharan zone in the north. These natural trumps validate the possession of two of the biggest national parks: the Zakouma and the Manda national parks.
Chad disposes an important diversity of wild life species. These animals are mainly found in the six fauna reservations of the country. While species like the rhinoceros, the oryx, the addax, are seriously threatened to be extinguished, notably because of poaching, one can luckily still count 250 bird species, 44 types of mammals and 84 wood types. The space used by national reservations makes up about 10 per cent of the national territory. The fish production is in effect especially in the rivers Chari and Logone, as well as in Lake Chad. Fishing that sometimes reaches 100,000 tones, however, is difficult to be transported and conserved. To evade these difficulties the fisher men opt to drying the fish on the spot.